British New York vs. the Spanish Empire

In 1664, the British took New Amsterdam from the Dutch and renamed it New York. The city thus became part of a new would-be empire.
 
Like the Dutch, the English sought to expand at the expense of the Spanish. Like the Dutch, the English were Protestants, and for most of their reign repressed Catholicism in New York. Like the Dutch, who had fought to liberate themselves from Spanish rule, the English developed a cultural antipathy to Spain, branding their rivals as barbarous, despotic, and cruel. And colonial New Yorkers, like colonial Nieuw Amsterdammers, absorbed the medley of Dutch and British fears and prejudices about the Spanish that became known as the “Black Legend.”

Bartolomé de las Casas, Regionum Indicarum per Hispanos olim devastatarum accuratissima descrptio: insertis figuris æneis ad vivum fabrefactis. Heidelbergae: typis Guilielmi VValteri acad. typogr. A.S., 1664. New-York Historical Society. Dutch and English animosity for the Spanish was stoked by indictments of Spain’s New World conquests, such as the Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1552), written by Spanish priest Bartolomé de las Casas.
 
Spain’s enemies translated and circulated the las Casas text—newly illustrated with horrific images by Theodor de Bry—and also distributed inflammatory engravings depicting Spanish cruelty to the Dutch. This helped foster a conviction that Spaniards were more violent than other people, creating the “Black Legend” that would dominate attitudes to Spain for centuries.
Bartolomé de las Casas, RegionumIndicarum per Hispanos olim devastatarum accuratissima descrptio: insertis figuris æneis ad vivum fabrefactis. Heidelbergae: typis Guilielmi VValteri acad. typogr. A.S., 1664. New-York Historical Society.

Isaac Pinto, Prayers for Shabbath ... According to the Order of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. New York: John Holt, 1766. New-York Historical Society. While Spanish nationals were unwelcome in either Dutch or Anglo New York, there were exceptions. After their expulsion from Spain in 1492, some Sephardic Jews from the Iberian Peninsula eventually made their way to Dutch Brazil. In 1654, fleeing the recapture of this territory by the Portuguese, 23 Jews sought refuge in Dutch New Amsterdam, which Peter Stuyvesant initially refused. When the Sephardic community in Amsterdam (which included substantial investors in the Dutch West India Company) intervened on their behalf, they were permitted to stay. The Jewish community that formed in 17th-century New York established the Sephardic congregation of Shearith Israel, which still thrives today. 
Isaac Pinto, Prayers for Shabbath ... According to the Order of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. New York: John Holt, 1766. New-York Historical Society.
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